Approach Considerations The only effective medical care in patients with sinus node dysfunction (SND) is correction of extrinsic causes. No treatment is required for asymptomatic patients, even if they have abnormal SNRTs or SACTs. If the patient is receiving medications that can provoke sinus bradyarrhythmias (eg, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors), the medications should be stopped if possible. Acute treatment consists of atropine (0.04 mg/kg intravenously every 2-4 h) and/or isoproterenol (0.05-0.5 mcg/kg/min intravenously). A…"Sinus Node Dysfunction Treatment & Managemen"
Background Sinus node dysfunction (SND) refers to abnormalities in SN impulse formation and propagation and includes sinus bradycardia, sinus pause/arrest, chronotropic incompetence, and sinoatrial exit block. (See Workup.) [1, 2, 3] SND is frequently associated with conduction system disease in the heart and various supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation [3, 4] and atrial flutter. When associated with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, SND is often termed tachy-brady syndrome. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) [2, 3] SND is referred…"Sinus Node Dysfunction"
Practice Essentials Down syndrome is by far the most common and best known chromosomal disorder in humans and the most common cause of intellectual disability. It is primarily caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (see the image below), which gives rise to multiple systemic complications as part of the syndrome. However, not all defects occur in each patient; there is a wide range of phenotypic variation.  G-banded karyotype showing trisomy 21 (47,XY,+21). View Media…"Down Syndrome and cardiovascular Association"
Definition By Mayo Clinic Staff An aortic dissection is a serious condition in which the inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel branching off the heart, tears. Blood surges through the tear, causing the inner and middle layers of the aorta to separate (dissect). If the blood-filled channel ruptures through the outside aortic wall, aortic dissection is often fatal. Aortic dissection is relatively uncommon. The condition most frequently occurs in men…"Aortic aneurysm, Causes pathophysiology, differentials and treatment"
Pericardiocentesis Introduction and Indications The pericardial space usually contains 15-50 ml of fluid, which serves as lubricant between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium. Several systemic conditions can cause an increased amount of fluid in this space. Blood can also collect in this space following trauma. Clinical manifestations are highly dependent on the amount and rate of accumulation of this fluid or blood. The worst outcome is ventricular collapse causing a precipitous drop…"Pericardiocentesis, Indication and procedure…."