Obesity is common, serious, and costly
• The prevalence of obesity was 39.8% and affected about 93.3 million of US adults in 2015~2016
• Obesity-related causes heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer that are some of the leading causes of preventable, premature death.
• The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the United States was $147 billion in 2008 US dollars; the medical cost for people who have obesity was $1,429 higher than those of normal weight. Ref CDC
Obesity among races:
• Hispanics (47.0%) and non-Hispanic blacks (46.8%) had the highest age-adjusted prevalence of obesity, followed by non-Hispanic whites (37.9%) and non-Hispanic Asians (12.7%).
• The prevalence of obesity was 35.7% among young adults aged 20 to 39 years, 42.8% among middle-aged adults aged 40 to 59 years, and 41.0% among older adults aged 60 and older.
Obesity and socioeconomic status
Obesity is a disease which affects all the classes whether middle , high or low class but more common among Middle class .
Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity: what is obesity and overweight:
Body mass index is used to measure the obesity. Usually it is measured by weight in kg divided by height in square meter.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.
A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness.
• If BMI is less than 18.5, it falls within the underweight range.
• If BMI is 18.5 to <25, it falls within the normal.
• If BMI is 25.0 to <30, it falls within the overweight range.
• If BMI is 30.0 or higher, it falls within the obese range.
Obesity is frequently subdivided into categories:
• Class 1: BMI of 30 to < 35
• Class 2: BMI of 35 to < 40
• Class 3: BMI of 40 or higher. Class 3 obesity is sometimes categorized as “extreme” or “severe” obesity.
BMI does not measure body fat directly, but research has shown that BMI is moderately correlated with more direct measures of body fat obtained from skinfold thickness measurements, bioelectrical impedance, underwater weighing, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other methods
Furthermore, BMI appears to be strongly correlated with various adverse health outcomes consistent with these more direct measures of body fatness
For more information about BMI, visit Body Mass Index .
Consequences of Obesity
People who have obesity, compared to those with a normal or healthy weight, are at increased risk for many serious diseases and health conditions, including the following:
All-causes of death (mortality)
• High blood pressure (Hypertension)
• High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides (Dyslipidemia)
• Type 2 diabetes
• Coronary heart disease
• Gallbladder disease
• Osteoarthritis (a breakdown of cartilage and bone within a joint)
• Sleep apnea and breathing problems
• Some cancers (endometrial, breast, colon, kidney, gallbladder, and liver)
• Low quality of life
• Mental illness such as clinical depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders
• Body pain and difficulty with physical functioning
Causes of Obesity: